The main objective of research, development and innovation in the Czech Republic and Europe in the field of energy is to ensure sustainable, safe, competitive and affordable energy. In 2007, the European Commission issued the “SET Plan” (Strategic Energy Technology Plan), which emphasizes the need for development of energy technologies with clearly defined goals for 2020 – 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, 20% share of renewable energy resources, and 20% reduction in power consumption by increasing efficiency of its uses. By 2050, the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan will focus on reducing the rate of climate change (global warming below 2°C), mainly by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by 80% to 95%. The SET Plan also aims at reducing the low-carbon power generation cost, and at transforming the energy industry in the context of low-carbon energy technologies. The above-mentioned goals represent major challenges for the Czech Republic in terms of reducing the energy intensity and increasing the resilience of electricity grid. Research, development and innovation using the top-class large research infrastructures shall, therefore, contribute to successful addressing these challenges.