The key objective of European and Czech energy R&D is to provide the citizens with secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy. In 2007 the European Commission published the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan) emphasizing that the energy technology development needed to reach the energy policy goals of 2020 – i.e. a 20% reduction of the GHG emissions, a 20% share of renewable energy sources, and a 20% reduction in the use of primary energy by improving energy efficiency. For 2050 the SET Plan is targeted at limiting climate change to a global temperature rise of no more than 2°C, particularly through reduction of the GHG emissions by 80-95%. The objective of SET Plan is also to lower the cost of clean energy and put the EU industry at the forefront of the low-carbon technology sector. The Czech Republic faces big challenges to meet the SET Plan energy policy goals, particularly in reducing the energy consumption and increasing demands on robustness of electrical transmission system. R&D performed by using the most modern research infrastructures should contribute to their successful addressing.